Japan Airlines (JAL) has established a new agreement with Matternet to evaluate future opportunities for the use of drones to provide healthcare deliveries, the latest in the carrier’s efforts to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a new style of flight operations.
Matternet, a U.S.-based end-to-end UAS logistics company launched in 2017, has enabled more than 10,000 commercial revenue drone flights and has separate regulatory approvals to conduct beyond visual line of sight operations (BLVOS) in Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA) airspace. Under a new memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed with JAL, Matternet will conduct a joint research project aimed at eventually deploying a full-scale drone delivery service, according to a Sept. 23 press release.
“Japan Airlines is eager to explore the future of its air logistics business with the implementation of drone delivery,” JAL Tomohiro Nishihata Managing Executive Officer of Innovation said in a statement. “We aim to contribute to improving healthcare and solving logistics issues through our partnership with Matternet.”
The end-to-end drone logistics system provided by Matternet includes its M2 Drone, ground control station and cloud-based data management platform. Their software is capable of receiving customer requests and generating routes for new drone flights while monitoring and controlling other assets.
Andreas Raptopoulos, CEO of Matternet said their partnership will begin with demonstrations of drone deliveries in Tokyo. JAL’s partnership with Matternet follows a number of other initiatives the airline has taken toward advancing the use of drones for commercial delivery operations throughout Japan.
A joint announcement published by JAL, KDDI Corp., East Japan Railway, Weathernews Inc., and Terra Drone Corp. describes their plan to demonstrate drone delivery services for Tokyo Metropolitan Government agencies. Those companies have formed a consortium tasked with studying the feasibility drones delivering pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies using fixed-wing unmanned aircraft supplied by Terra Drone. Additionally, Terra Drone will supply its Terra UTM platform to enable drone traffic management including flight plan generation and communications to operators.
“Due to the lack of delivery personnel and the impact of the global pandemic, the necessity to respond to changes in the logistics industry has become real and the use of drones may help realize automatic, contactless delivery services,” JAL said in an Aug. 31 press release. The consortium will also integrate smartphone applications and ground base stations into the entire concept of operations, while also evaluating the use of drones for food deliveries to offices and apartment buildings as well.
Prior to the August announcement, JAL embarked on another drone delivery testing initiative with Terra Drone to do full-scale flight demonstrations in the city of Yabu, Japan. JAL has also expressed interest in the future use of electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft as well, after signing an agreement with Bell and Sumitomo Corp. to create an on-demand air mobility network, as well as work to build the infrastructure and foster the regulatory environment required for the service to take hold.
Showing how serious it is about future drone delivery ambitions, JAL has also launched its new Air Mobility Operation Academy (JAMOA). The program will provide education and training for future UAV pilots, with JAL describing it as the first “known program in Japan to offer the same flight knowledge taught to actual pilots of a commercial airline.”
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Avionics developers are now able to use military level, safety-critical cryptography to deliver secure communications through DDC-I’s Deos Real Time Operating System (RTOS).
DDC-I, a global supplier of real-time operating systems, and woflSSL, a TLS cryptography provider, have made a cryptography library and certification kit certifiable to DO-178C Level A, according to a Sept. 21 press release. This means avionics developers will have a commercial off the shelf (COTS) product that meets federal information processing standards, FIPS 140-2, and can be used to support safety-critical RTOS applications.
“The integration of Deos and wolfCrypt should prove very attractive to avionics developers who require a secure, out-of-the-box, safety-critical solution that comes ready to certify, complete with DAL A evidence,” Larry Stefonic, CEO and Founder at wolfSSL, said in a statement. “We have a very strong working relationship with DDC-I and find Deos to be quite straightforward to work with. Together, I believe we offer our joint customers a world-class platform that features best-in-class RTOS and security.”
According to DDC-I, Deos can be used in air data computers, air data inertial reference units, cockpit video, displays and instrumentation, flight management systems, and engine management.
“Deos is a safety-critical RTOS that is inherently secure with its time and space partitioning and its safety-critical architectural design, and any customers that require extended security features can now leverage the collaboration between DDC-I and wolfSSL to support their security needs,” Greg Rose, Vice President of Marketing and Product Management at DDC-I, told Avionics International.
Some encrypted systems require security packages to communicate with each other, the integration with wolfCrypt would facilitate that connection, Rose said. Avionics or ground systems that require “Secure boot, Secure Update, and Secure Communications” would be able to use this encryption, according to DDC-I.
Together, Deos and wolfCrypt, can be used for anything from military systems to Urban Air Mobility or avionics systems featured on commercial airliners. DDC-I and wolfSSL already have several joint customers that are using the wolfSSL technology in conjunction with DDC-I’s Deos Safety-Critical RTOS, Rose said.
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California green energy startup Universal Hydrogen has established a partnership with Redmond, Washington-based magniX to supply the electric propulsion system as part of a retrofit conversion kit for the De Havilland Canada DHC8-Q300.
Universal Hydrogen describes itself as an end-to-end logistics company, lead by a team of former UTC executives that left the company after the Raytheon merger including Paul Eremenko and Jason Chua. Their concept of operations envisions using the global intermodal freight network to eliminate the need for infrastructure and provide hydrogen power for passenger-carrying regional airline flights in the near future.
The retrofit conversion kit being developed by Universal Hydrogen for the Dash 8 is part of their goal to promote near term adoption of hydrogen power for commercial aircraft. Under the partnership with magniX, they have now secured the motors, inverters, and motor controllers as part of their full hydrogen fuel cell powertrain.
Rather than trying to develop the infrastructure required to store, develop and distribute hydrogen, Universal Hydrogen has developed a specialized capsule that converts hydrogen to dry freight enabling transportation from the point of consumption to airports where aircraft need refueling. Their design takes advantage of the concept of intermodal freight, which uses containers that can be transported through a variety of vehicles including ships, semi-trailer trucks, and trains.
“magniX is responsible for the 2MW-class electric propulsion systems,” magniX CEO Roei Ganzarski told Avionics International.
Ganzarski said the use of hydrogen power as compared to a lithium-ion battery can enable the use of the cleaner energy source on larger aircraft.
“magniX provides the electric propulsion systems that take electricity as input, and provide propeller torque as output. From our propulsion perspective, there is no difference between the source of the electricity. With that said, the hydrogen fuel cell technology is enabling the electrification of much larger aircraft like the Dash-8 or ATR42 which is very exciting as this opens up a much larger operational envelope,” Ganzarski said.
magniX already has leadership ability to provide electric power on smaller turboprop aircraft, including the eBeaver that started flying with Harbour Air in December 2019, and the eCaravan that started flying in May 2020.
The company’s 750-horsepower Magni500 propulsion system powered an eCaravan flight in May for a 30-minute flight, climbing to 2,500 feet. According to Ganzarski, the system they will provide to Universal Hydrogen features a power electronics suite capable of collecting data about its performance for analytical purposes.
Ganzarski said he does not envision the need for specialized avionics or flight instruments to be developed as part of the Dash 8’s hydrogen power retrofit conversion kit.
“We anticipate that many of the same metrics that we monitor today for existing engines and Jet A will remain. For example, we will display various temperature, pressure, speed, and fuel metrics,” Ganzarski said. “In the case of our hydrogen-electric powertrain, we’ll also monitor the dynamics of the powertrain, to ensure we can appropriately identify issues and raise alerts. To mitigate the formation of contrails, we plan to incorporate atmospheric condition sensing capabilities into our system. This will enable decisions of when to store the fuel cell water vapor emissions in onboard tanks, and when to release them.”
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Airbus has unveiled three climate neutral zero-emission commercial aircraft concepts that will use hydrogen as their primary fuel source, according to a Sept. 21 press release. The three concepts, codenamed ZEROe, could be put into service by 2035.
This move by Airbus is an attempt to reduce the impact of commercial aviation on the world’s climate. The three zero-emission aircraft designs aim to decarbonize the aviation industry and could provide a solution in meeting the industry’s climate-neutral targets.
According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), commercial aviation is responsible for 2-3 percent of global carbon emissions. In 2009 the industry established three targets to address climate change: improvement in fuel efficiency of 1.5 percent per year from 2009 to 2020, cap on net aviation carbon dioxide emissions, and reduction in net aviation carbon dioxide emissions by 50 percent by 2050.
Airbus’ turbofan design would be suited for longer flights and more passengers. It has a range of over 2,000 nautical miles and can hold 120-200 passengers. The turbofan design uses a modified gas-turbine engine that runs on hydrogen through combustion. The liquid hydrogen is stored and distributed through tanks behind the rear pressure bulkhead.
For shorter distances and less people, Airbus created the turboprop design. The turboprop design can hold up to 100 passengers and go more than 1,000 nautical miles. It is also powered by hydrogen combustion in modified gas-turbine engines.
The “blended-wing body” concept changes the appearance of the aircraft merging the main body with the wings. The range and capacity of this design are similar to the turbofan.
“This is a historic moment for the commercial aviation sector as a whole and we intend to play a leading role in the most important transition this industry has ever seen,” Airbus CEO Guillaume Faury said in a statement. “The concepts we unveil today offer the world a glimpse of our ambition to drive a bold vision for the future of zero-emission flight. I strongly believe that the use of hydrogen – both in synthetic fuels and as a primary power source for commercial aircraft – has the potential to significantly reduce aviation’s climate impact.”
In order for Airbus to make these concepts a reality, airports will need “significant” hydrogen transport and refueling systems to support day-to-day operations, according to the press release. Airbus also states they will need the government support for funding of research and technology as well as the ability to retire older, less environmentally friendly aircraft sooner.
Airbus is also working on making their helicopters more eco-friendly. According to a press release, Tomasz Krysinski, head of research and innovation at Airbus Helicopters, hydrogen technologies in helicopters could be available in 2029. However, Airbus is working on many other innovations besides hydrogen power like “eco-mode,” which would pause and restart a gas turbine in flight on twin-engine helicopters or CityAirbus, which is a fully electrically powered demonstrator.
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During the first day of the Global Connected Aircraft Summit’s second “Cabin Chats” web series, cybersecurity experts from the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) came together to discuss risk management and upcoming policy changes for stakeholders across the connected aircraft ecosystem.
Peter Skaves, Advanced Avionics Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor (CSTA) at FAA, said the biggest threat from the standpoint of the FAA is access points via public networks. The FAA’s assessment is that the cybersecurity risks for the e-enabled architecture and infrastructure of the aircraft cannot physically be hacked while flying.
“Every part in the airplane, every software part, has a unique electronic identifier and the only time we can load up these software parts is on a maintenance action when the planes are parked at the gate,” Skaves said. “Once the maintenance action is done, the hardware interlocks are not available for any additional software updates. There is no room for you to come over here and go rogue on these displays or anywhere in the airplane. There is no physical way you can do that.”
In recent years, professional hackers from firms such as IOACTIVE have demonstrated their ability to hack into a commercial airplane’s satellite internet modem, although the only such hacking that has been demonstrated impacted passenger mobile devices connected to the in-flight Internet with no ability to affect safety critical avionics systems. During the web-based version of Black Hat 2020 last month, Oxford PhD candidate and cybersecurity researcher James Pavur, demonstrated how his team was able to use about $300 in home television equipment and specialized software to enable “satellite eavesdropping” on in-flight passenger Internet data.
The FAA and EASA are continuing to expand industry guidance, education and regulations to prevent cybersecurity risks in the air and on the ground.
Cyrille Rosay, a senior cybersecurity expert at EASA, explained how the agency has amended its cybersecurity requirements for commercial aircraft, helicopters, and jet engines. The amendments were originally proposed in 2019. EASA’s “Decision 2020/006/R,” published in July, issues amendments for product certification and continued airworthiness to already existing certification specifications (CS) and acceptable means of compliance (AMC). These regulations do not yet apply to unmanned aircraft.
Decision 2020/006/R aims to protect aircraft against threats to on-board electronic networks and systems. The amendments in this decision affect everything from general requirements on systems and equipment function in AMC 23.2510 to APU Control Systems and information security protection in CS-APU 90. The new amendments are to become effective in January 2021, according to information presented by Rosay.
Skaves said that the FAA plans to publish an advisory circular to recognize standards for Transport Category Airplanes. The advisory circular will be combined with RTCA industry-accepted standards.
A slide in Skaves presentation noted, “The FAA plans to publish an advisory circular as one means but not the only means to recognize these [Aircraft Systems Information Security/Protection] ASISP industry standards for Transport Category Airplanes.”
Juan Anton, cybersecurity in aviation & emerging risks section manager at EASA, discussed how the agency is also working on managing cybersecurity risks by organizations. Anton explained how EASA regulatory framework is focused on preventing accidents, where managing cybersecurity risks focuses on safety risks that result from intentional acts.
“Our rules have always been focused on safety…We put safety layers to stop something from happening, but we assume that it happens just by chance when all things align. We never thought about somebody trying to exploit those vulnerabilities or flaws,” Anton said.
Anton said the solution would be an Information Security Management System (ISMS) and reporting of information security incidents that may impact aviation safety. The ISMS would identify areas that would be vulnerable to cyber risks, identify cyber risks resulting from its interfaces with other organizations, perform information security risk assessments, and ensure personnel has the skills to perform their tasks.
EASA is currently working on an ISMS and predicts it will be adopted by the European Commission in 2022.
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Check out the Sept. 20 edition of What’s Trending in Aerospace, where editors and contributors for Avionics International bring you some of the latest headlines happening across the global aerospace industry.
The U.S. House Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure (T&I) published a 230-page report investigating the development, design and certification of the 737 MAX.
“This report concludes the U.S. House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure’s 18- month long investigation of the design, development, and certification of the 737 MAX aircraft, and related matters. The Committee’s investigation has revealed multiple missed opportunities that could have turned the trajectory of the MAX’s design and development toward a safer course due to flawed technical design criteria, faulty assumptions about pilot response times, and production pressures,” the report says.
Check out the full 737 MAX report on the committee’s website here.
Raytheon Intelligence & Space has been awarded a $13.1 million contract for a U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory program aimed at connecting military jets to emerging commercial satellite internet constellations in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) announced the contract Sept. 10.
Under the contract, Raytheon Intelligence & Space, a Raytheon Technologies business, is developing a phased array antenna to allow communications with satellite internet constellations. The design is for the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Defense Experimentation Using Commercial Space Internet (DEUCSI), or “Global Lightning,” program. According to a Raytheon release on Tuesday, the new phased-array antenna will allow an aircraft to seamlessly jump between different satellites. The program calls for a flight demonstration in 2022.
Check out the full story as first published on Via Satellite, a sister publication to Avionics.
The Northern Plains UAS Test Site (NPUASTS) has begun the initial stages of implementing infrastructure for North Dakota’s statewide Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) network.
The key site chosen for initial deployment is in the area surrounding Watford City and Williston, ND, due to the proximity of many potential use cases and existing state and local government infrastructure that can be leveraged for this deployment.
“We’re excited to begin the first stage of building this network in western North Dakota. It is ideally located in the heart of North Dakota’s oil and gas industry and covers a population center that will directly benefit from the network,” said Nicholas Flom, executive director of NPUASTS. “This means that even the very first stage of the network will be commercially viable.”
Infrastructure for the network will be built by L3Harris, Collins Aerospace and Thales USA. Volansi’s VOLY10 VTOL delivery drone, capable of carrying 10 lbs of cargo, has been selected for testing and use-case development.
Lockheed Martin Ventures made a strategic investment in Hidden Level, a sensor and airspace management company that is working with Uber Elevate as part of the company’s air taxi network development.
The investment amount was not disclosed, but is “part of a strategic investment leading into our Series A fundraising round which is kicking off now,” according to a company representative. Hidden Level raised $3.6 million in seed funding in November 2019, according to Crunchbase.
“Growing infrastructure and evolving technology pose new challenges every day, such as spectrum access and radar congestion, to safely navigate our nation’s airspace system,” said Chris Moran, general manager and VP of Lockheed Martin Ventures. “Our investment in Hidden Level underscores our focus on mitigating airspace safety challenges. We are excited to add Hidden Level to our investment portfolio and look forward to working with their team and gaining access to their distributed sensor network that may offer a solution to address these escalating challenges.”
Hidden Level is working with a number of municipalities and metropolitan areas on the east and west coasts of the United States to propose integration of airspace monitoring solutions, the company told Avionics recently. Announcements are slated for later this year.
Facing numerous ongoing crises affecting its commercial business, Boeing is suspending work at Boeing NeXt, its innovation unit focused on next-generation air vehicles, including eVTOL air taxis.
NeXT, which contains Boeing subsidiary Aurora Flight Sciences, has been developing a Passenger Air Vehicle (PAV) and Cargo Air Vehicle (CAV), both of which crashed during flight testing last summer.
Aurora will remain a subsidiary of Boeing for the rest of the year, according to Boeing spokesperson Alison Sheridan, as management assesses its options for the future of the company. Sheridan told eVTOL.com that Boeing’s continued investment in and participation with its joint ventures, investment companies and partners are “being evaluated and no decisions have been made yet.”
Wisk, a joint venture with Larry Page-backed Kitty Hawk focused on bringing autonomous electric air taxis to market, told eVTOL.com the following: “Wisk is a healthy, independent company with a committed vision, mission and go-to-market plan. We are in a strong financial position with an exceptional team and we continue to execute on our current roadmap. As an investor, Boeing’s relationship with Wisk has not changed.”
Pittsburgh-based Near Earth Autonomy, a systems integrator of autonomous flight solutions for drone, urban air mobility and military aircraft, hired Alex Foessel as senior director of market strategy.
Foessel, formerly director of technology and innovation for John Deere, joins Near Earth as the company ramps up its partnerships with numerous companies working to develop autonomous aircraft, including electric vertical takeoff and landing aircraft. With extensive experience developing and commercializing automation and robotics solutions, Foessel will lead business and product strategy as Near Earth expands its technology across new industries and applications.
Boeing is negotiating terms for a potential communications upgrade to the KC-46A that could occur early next year. (Boeing)
The U.S. Air Force and Boeing are negotiating the terms of a contract for Pegasus Combat Capability (PC2) Block I for the company’s KC-46 Pegasus air refueler–a contract which could come in the first quarter of next year and which would provide the tanker with communications upgrades.
Boeing said that it has delivered 38 KC-46s to the Air Force thus far–21 of a planned 36 for McConnell AFB, Kan., which is to be a “super tanker base”; six of 7 for Altus AFB, Okla., the tanker training base; seven for Pease Air National Guard Base, N.H.; and four of a planned 12 for Seymour Johnson AFB, N.C.
Mike Hafer, Boeing’s KC-46 global sales and marketing manager, said that the Block I PC2 upgrade includes four radios, including government furnished equipment, and those compatible with DoD’s Mobile User Objective System (MUOS) and NATO’s Second Generation Anti Jam Tactical UHF Radio (SATURN) communications networks.
Under PC2, Air Mobility Command (AMC) is envisioning a two- to four-year successive block upgrade program for the KC-46 to encompass enhanced communications, survivability, and greater autonomy for the refueling system.
Boeing has outlined a number of fixes for the KC-46 Remote Vision System (RVS), which allows air refueling operator station (AROS) personnel in the front of KC-46A aircraft to steer refueling booms using Collins Aerospace [RTX] cameras on the fuselage. The KC-135, first fielded in 1957, and the KC-10 rely upon boom operators lying on their stomachs in the aircraft empennage to steer the booms into refueling receptacles.
The RVS cameras for the KC-46 have faced problems with sunlight glare and providing correct depth perception for accurate boom placement in refueling receptacles. Inaccurate boom placement could lead to scraping and coating damage on aircraft being refueled, such as the Lockheed Martin F-22 and F-35 stealth fighters.
Boeing and Collins Aerospace are working to resolve such difficulties with the RVS 2.0 upgrade.
Hafer said that Boeing signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) with the Air Force in April under which Boeing engineers and those from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are planning “a complete refresh of the entire Remote Vision System,” including interim steps on the way to RVS 2.0.
“We’ve been flight testing some new enhancements,” Hafer said. “We just completed at the end of July or early August the first set of flight tests, which work on dynamic image stability.”
Such flight tested hardware and software improvements eliminate “most” of the shadows and glare, he said, adding that Air Mobility Commander Gen. Jacqueline Van Ovost and Robert Behler, the Pentagon’s Director of Operational Test & Evaluation (DOT&E), recently visited Boeing “to look at some of those improvements and where we’re headed with RVS 2.0.”
Boeing has also proposed a new LIDAR sensor that provides information about the distance between the boom and the receiver aircraft, as boom operators have said that they need to judge depth “to the inch or sub-inch level,” Hafer said.
This article was first published in Defense Daily, a sister publication to Avionics. It has been edited. To read the full version, click here.
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Daniel Welch, senior consultant with Valour Consultancy, joins the Connected Aircraft Podcast for a very informative interview on all things commercial airlines, in-flight connectivity and COVID-19.
On this episode of the Connected Aircraft Podcast, Daniel Welch, a senior consultant with Valour Consultancy, discusses all of latest updates around in-flight connectivity equipage updates, aircraft groundings and future prospects for commercial airlines around the world.
Valour Consultancy recently published an update to its connectivity tracker for the second quarter, and Welch provides perspectives on how the drop in air passenger demand and impact of COVID-19 related travel restrictions and policies are impacting airlines, vendors, service providers and aircraft installation and modification companies. Welch also gives some insight on Intelsat’s recent acquisition of Gogo’s commercial aviation business, and next generation IFC networks that are still in development with disruptive potential.
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The Global Connected Aircraft Summit is bringing back its “Cabin Chats” web series for a second installment, Sept. 22-24, with speakers from EASA, FAA, Collins Aerospace, StandardAero, Intelsat, NSR and more analyzing how COVID-19 has impacted the connected aircraft ecosystem. (Airbus)
While the Global Connected Aircraft Summit has been postponed until June 2021, the event’s organizers are hosting the second installment of a unique platform for airlines, business jet operators, satellite players, as well as solutions providers to network and talk about the connected aircraft of the future, “Cabin Chats.”
Civil aviation regulatory officials from the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will lead off the second part of the web series. During an hour-long interactive session, the officials will provide some brief updates on some of the latest connected and non-connected aircraft related regulations and policy updates in the U.S. and Europe.
Juan Anton, is one of the cybersecurity experts for EASA that will discuss policy updates and take live questions on Sept. 22, 2020.
Cyrille Rosay and Juan Anton, both senior cybersecurity experts for EASA, will address the status of two notice of proposed amendments that introduce potential regulatory policy changes for certifying connected aircraft systems onboard commercial airliners in Europe. Both of these amendments, covered in the April/May 2020 edition of Avionics, focus on special conditions and security risks.
Peter Skaves, Chief Scientific & Technical Advisor for Advanced Avionics for the FAA, will also be featured on the first day of Cabin Chats, discussing aircraft systems information security protection. Skaves, Anton and Rosay will also participate in a question and answer session with the live audience.
Skaves has a 29-year career with the FAA, he has supported various airplane programs, including Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS), Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Flight Management Computer Systems (FMCS), Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), Automatic Fight Guidance and Control Systems (AFGCS), Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B).
On the second day of Cabin Chats, Mark Holmes, editorial director for Via Satellite, will lead a panel discussion focusing on how connectivity can help address passenger health and safety concerns amid COVID-19 during an interactive roundtable discussion.
Mike McConnell, who represents L2 Aviation’s HALO cabin air monitoring system will be featured on the panel along with leadership from GE Aviation and Collins Aerospace.
L2 showed what a sample configuration for four HALO sensors installed within an aircraft could look like. Photo: L2 Aviation
Brad Grady, principal analyst at Northern Sky Research (NSR) will be joined by his colleague Vivek Suresh Prasad, consultant and analyst, Space at Northern Sky Research to give one of the annual favorite sessions from the live Global Connected Aircraft Summit (GCAS), demystifying bandwidth, capacity and business model trends from the myriad of new satellite connectivity next generation networks under development.
Registration is open and free here. All sessions will be archived on-demand, check out the full Cabin Chats agenda here.
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Avionics systems that use multicore processors can see worst-case execution times (WCET) increase by 8-13x versus a single-core implementation. But a solution exists today to help system integrators mitigate the multicore interference that causes such increases in WCET.
Multicore interference occurs when one or more processor cores attempt to access a shared resource that is already in use by another core. The resulting delays can impact determinism, performance, and ultimately safety. A major congestion point is access to shared memory, but I/O, DMA, shared cache, and even the on-chip interconnect can also cause interference.
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